Chapter 19 ESSEX COUNTY IN THE WAR OF 1861-65. (Continued.)
Originally published in 1884
Thirty-third Regiment (Compiled from John Y. Foster's "New Jersey in the Rebellion.") - This regiment was
raised in the summer of 1863, under an authorization
issued to Col. Mindil, permitting the recruiting of
"Veteran Volunteers." The regiment as raised represented almost exclusively the Counties of Essex,
Morris, Passaic and Hudson.|
As originally ordered, four Companies, A, B, C, and F., were to be raised in Newark, and E, in Camden and Essex. The recruiting of a regiment, with head-quarters at Beverly, however, thwarted the original plan of raising men in the south part of the State for an Essex and Hudson Regiment, therefore, Essex County added Company E to her quota. Essex could no doubt have raised at that time a whole regiment, as the war fever was running high, and liberal bounties were offered, thus facilitating the raising of troops; so that in fifty-five days from the time the rendezvous was opened at Newark, the ranks were full, and the regiment mustered into the service of the United States on the 3d day of September, 1863. The Command was a superior one, armed with Springfield rifles, and dressed in the picturesque Zouave uniform, and fully three-fourths of the men, and seven-eighths of the officers had already seen service in the field.
On the 8th of September the regiment proceeded into Virginia, but in the latter part of the month was sent to the West and reached Bridgeport, a military station on the Tennessee River, in the northeastern part of Alabama, and distant about two days march from Chattanooga, on the 30th. Here, the command once more engaged in active drill, making such satisfactory progress as to elicit the warmest expressions of approbation from General Howard. On the 18th of October, Colonel Mindil was ordered to proceed with three regiments to the mouth of Battle Creek, about six miles distant on the wagon road to Chattanooga, for the purpose of relieving General Morgan's Brigade of Western troops, then holding the place. This temporary brigade, to the command of which Colonel Mindil had been assigned, consisted of the Thirty-third New Jersey, Twenty-seventh and Seventy-third Pennsylvania and Eightieth Illinois Volunteers, and their duty was to protect the pontoon bridge across Battle Creek, on the only wagon road to Chat- across Battle Creek, on the only wagon road to Chattanooga then in our possession, as well as to picket the surrounding country and assist the heavy trains of supplies in moving over the muddy and worn-out roads, which required frequent repairs, by new drainage, corduroy, &c. On the 24th of October, the three regiments were ordered back to Bridgeport to rejoin the corps, which had been ordered to advance, and Colonel Mindil was left alone with the Thirty-third Regiment in this isolated position, to do the heavy labor formerly assigned to a brigade. The roads, for a distance of six miles, were under the immediate care of the Thirty- third, and the men were constantly employed in guarding and repairing them. In the meantime Hooker moved forward and fought the successful battles of Lookout Valley and Wauhatchie being the first victories achieved on Western ground by Eastern troops driving the rebels from the valley up the sides of the mountain, and thus opening the road from Kelly's Ferry to Brown's, by which supplies could be forwarded direct to Chattanooga by steamer, from Bridgeport to Kelly's Ferry, and thence by wagons to Brown's, where the Tennessee was crossed by a pontoon bridge. Had Hooker failed in this movement, directed by Grant, the consequences could not have been otherwise than most serious, and Chattanooga would probably have been abandoned. There being no longer a necessity for the retention of troops at Battle Creek, the Thirty-third moved forward, on the 4th of November, to rejoin its corps in Lookout Valley, reaching the brigade camp on the morning of the 6th.
At length, on the 22d of November, the regiment again moved out on active service, marching to Brown's Ferry, and thence through the camps of Sherman's forces, who had arrived from the Mississippi, to and beyond the town of Chattanooga, where it bivouacked in front of Fort Wood. At noon of the next day a few rifle shots were heard, then brisk skirmishing, then volleys of musketry and rapid discharges of heavy artillery, and soon the gallant veterans were seen pressing bravely onward, steadily gaining ground. And now orders came to the Thirty-third to move diagonally forward to the left. Moving a short distance the corps was formed for action in two lines, the sounds of battle on the right growing momentarily louder. Soon, an aid from Howard having delivered orders, the brigade moved into the plain beneath and towards a clump of woods skirting Citico Creek. The regiments of the first line at once sent out skirmishers to feel for the enemy, and under their cover the advance was made. Captain Boggs, with Company A, deployed along the front of the Thirty-third, and about one hundred and fifty yards in advance, proceeded some twenty paces, when a heavy fire was opened upon him and the regiment from every side from the woods in front, from under the stone bridge, and from behind several small buildings in possession of the foe. The Thirty-third, for the first time in action, continued to advance despite the heavy fire. Company A not being strong enough to push back the enemy's sharpshooters, who were well posted, Captain O'Connor, Company F, was advanced as a reinforcement, when Colonel Mindil led both companies to the attack. Under a brisk fire, the men still continued to gain ground, and the enemy soon retired behind the creek, still holding, however, the buildings and the bridge. But the advance was not made without loss. The brave Captain Boggs, while gallantly encouraging his men, was shot in the arm by a sharpshooter, and was obliged to leave the field, while several other casualties were suffered. The regiment now halted, awaiting the arrival of the troops on the right, but the fire from behind the buildings proving a serious annoyance to the men in the second line, Colonel Mindil was soon ordered to charge forward with his whole command and dislodge the enemy which was done at once, the regiment, with a cheer, rushing to the assault. The enemy fired rapidly and wildly, and, unable to resist the assault, the buildings were soon in possession of the assailants. But in this movement also the regiment suffered a severe loss, Captain Waldron, while bravely moving forward on the right of his company (I), on the extreme right of the regiment, falling dead, shot through the head by a sharpshooter from behind the very house which his company, only a few moments later, occupied. Lieutenant Toffey, of Company G, who had been directed to assume command of Company A, after Captain Boggs was wounded, was like- wise severely wounded before he had time to give an order.
In the meantime, and while the regiment was charging in line, Captain O'Connor, with Companies F and A, had succeeded in gaining the banks of the creek, and had even pushed some of his men across on the flank of the enemy occupying the bridge, but the regiment having halted, the enemy directed all their fury against his little command, compelling him to apply for assistance to enable him to save his command. This had been foreseen by Colonel Mindil, who had already ordered forward Company E, Captain Charles Fields, with Major D. A. Peloubet accompanying, who was to establish the line in front. All having been gained that was desired, the regiment directed its efforts to holding its position, which it did successfully. Night coming on, the Thirty-third was relieved by a fresh regiment of the brigade, and moved back to take its place in the reserve. It had fought its first battle, acting bravely and well, and the men, as they bivouacked under the stars felt, justly, that they had sustained on that Western field the brilliant reputation which New Jersey soldiers had gained in the East. General Howard, who had witnessed the gallant charge and steadiness of action, warmly complimented the command on its splendid behavior. The aggregate loss of the regiment, considering the work accomplished, was not large, amounting to one officer killed and two wounded, and one private killed and twelve wounded. The list of killed and wounded was found to be as follows:
Wounded-Captain William G. Boggs, Company A, left arm above the elbow, severe died about a month afterwards in hospital from its effects; Lieutenant John J. Toffey, Company G, right hip, serious was never able to rejoin the regiment, but entered the Invalid Corps. Company A -Corporal Christian Switzer, both legs, serious; William J. Atkins, groin, mortal-died afterwards. Company C-William McNeill, groin, serious. Company D-John Connell, hand, slight; W. H. Post, both thighs, serious. Company E-Joseph Swethurst, leg, slight. Company F-Corporal William Hearn, leg, slight; Francis Moakler, knee, slight; James Lewis, arm, slight. Company I-Sergeant Charles Fongar, hand, slight; William Bannon, hand, slight; W. H. Kelley, hand, slight. The entire army now ceased firing, and all rested for the night on the ground gained during the day
It was during the afternoon of this same day, the 24th, that the enemy having massed nearly his entire force over the Tunnel to oppose Sherman Hooker, with Geary's Division of the Twelfth Corps and Osterhaus' Division of the Fifteenth Corps, carried the sides and crest of Lookout Mountain, planting the Stars and Stripes on its very summit, above the clouds and in plain view of both armies. Sherman, on the left, had gained a fine position on the enemy's right. Thomas, in the center, held fast to the rebels posted there, in constant demonstrations; while Hooker, on the right, by his grand achievement, was placed in position to attempt the turning of the rebel left and the "rolling up" of his line with scarcely a possibility of failure in the attempt. The morrow was to be the decisive day, and the night was spent by both armies in preparations for the deadly struggle.
The morning of the 25th opened with sharp firing on the left, as Sherman carried crest after crest-the rebel artillery meanwhile thundering along the entire line and rendering the position of the Thirty-third exceedingly uncomfortable. At eleven o'clock, Sherman marshalled his forces for the assault of the rebel left on the Tunnel, and for this purpose the Thirty- third was moved to the right through the woods, then across a field, in full view of the enemy, into another piece of wood, directly opposite the Tunnel. In moving forward to obtain this position, the regiment was subjected to a destructive shell-fire from the enemy's batteries, which caused some havoc in its ranks, but the line moved splendidly forward, occupied the allotted space and reclined behind the protection of a fence. Sherman's attack was heavy and spirited ; but the masses of the enemy defied assault, and at four o'clock, p. m., the regiments were withdrawn from the struggle to take post again behind their intrenchments. This demonstration, however, had caused the enemy to reinforce heavily his right; and the left and center being weakened, Sherman seized his advantage, and pushing forward Thomas and Hooker, carried the enemy's left and center and drove him ingloriously from the ridge in his front. Owing to this success, the enemy also evacuated in Sherman's front during the night; and long before dawn of the 26th, the eager troops were ordered in pursuit. Thus had the Thirty-third taken a prominent part in three days of the heavy fighting of the ever-memorable battle of Chattanooga, and though raw and inexperienced, acquitted itself with the bravery and tenacity of their older, veteran comrades. The casualties in the fight at Mission Ridge, on the 25th of November, were then reported as follows:
Company D.-Wesley Conklin, shell, face.
Company E.-Samuel Searing, leg, killed.
Company F.-Julius Dachmeyer, shell, hip ; Patrick McDermott, shell, knee.
Company G.-Lewis Mangold, shell, arm.
The regiment now established a fine camp and went into winter quarters, where it remained until Sherman, having completed his plans for a movement against the enemy, once more drew out his army and commenced the memorable Atlanta Campaign.
During the winter, the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps being consolidated and designated as the Twentieth, under General Hooker, the Thirty-third was assigned to the second Brigade of the Second Division, the latter commanded by General John W. Geary. The brigade having no general officer for commander, it was led in the following campaign by the senior Colonel, Colonel Mindil commanding it most of the time, Lieutenant- Colonel Fouratt, a brave and capable officer, having immediate control of the Thirty-third.
On the 4th of May, 1864, at four o'clock in the afternoon, the Second Brigade, then commanded by Colonel Bushbeck, of the Twenty-seventh Pennsylvania Brigade broke camp, crossed Lookout Mountain and the State line of Tennessee, and bivouacked for the night on Georgia soil, near Rossville Gap. On the Fifth, the march was resumed, the Twentieth Corps forming the center of the army, and encamping on the Sixth near Pea-Vine Creek. On the Seventh, the Thirty-third crossed Taylor's Bridge, near Gordon's Springs, and at night occupied an advanced position on picket, on the Rome road, eight miles southwest of Dalton moved on the day following in rear of the division as guard to the train. The Fourth and Twenty-third Corps being already engaged in demonstrating against the strong position of Tunnel Hill and Buzzard's Roost, General Geary was ordered to proceed to Dug Gap, about two miles south by west of Dalton, and demonstrate there by making a heavy assault. On arriving at Dug Gap, Geary discovered before him a huge mountain over which ran a narrow road through a gap in the very summit, The mountain was most difficult of access, but Geary determined to attack vigorously and seek to dislodge the foe from their Georgian Gibraltar. Accordingly, placing his rifled artillery in position he at once commenced to shell the Gap, and under cover of this cannonade he advanced the First and Second of his brigades to direct assault. For nearly an hour and a half these men heroically attacked, only to be repelled by an unseen foe at every assault. The rebels were on the crest of the mountain, behind rocks, trees and rifle-pits, and poured a murderous fire into the ranks of Geary's men, who had boldly advanced up the steep sides to within ten paces of its crest. At length, the position being found impregnable, Geary retired his line a few hundred yards, in order to reconnoiter again and to make different dispositions for a final attempt. Up to this time, the Thirty-third had not been engaged; but on hearing the firing in his front, and fearing our force was inadequate to the task in hand, Colonel Mindil pushed forward with his regiment. Upon reporting to General Geary at the front, he was ordered to make a detour of half a mile, then scale the ridge, endeavor to reach its summit and turn the enemy's left flank, while the main force occupied his attention in front. The order was at once obeyed, Mindil's force consisting, in addition to the Thirty-third, of the Twenty- seventh Pennsylvania and One Hundred and Thirty- fourth New York regiments. After toilsome effort, over and among rough, rolling boulders, the Thirty- third arrived near the top of the ridge, driving the enemy's skirmishers before it, when its progress was impeded by a long series of palisades, rising abruptly from the mountain sides, and which could only be passed through two or three small gaps, capable of admitting but one man at a time. Through these gaps the regiment filed, and almost exhausted, formed line upon the rocks on the extreme right of our position, the One Hundred and Thirty-fourth New York being next on the left. To flank the enemy was impossible; his works extended along the crest of the mountain, which rose in a series of still higher palisades immediately in front. But one desperate hope of attaining the summit remained ; that was seized, and Colonel Mindil, with the Thirty-third and One Hundred and Thirty-fourth New York, at once made disposition to carry the crest by direct assault. Heavy lines of skirmishers were thrown out, a storming column formed of the One Hundred and Thirty-fourth New York and four companies of the Thirty-third, the remainder of the Thirty-third going into position as a supporting line, to guard against pursuit by the enemy, if the charge should fail, or to dash forward to follow up its success. At length, all being ready, the storming party charged forward up the sides of the steep mountain, over treacherous, moving boulders, and under heavy volleys of musketry, up to the foot of the steep palisades, which defied assault. But undaunted by the frowning walls, with cheers and yells the men gallantly endeavored to reach the summit, and despite the terrible obstacles, many actually reached the crest, only to fall beneath the murderous bullet, or to be thrust headlong on the rocks below. At length, finding the position invulnerable, reluctantly and still fighting, the men fell back to their position on the lower crest, where they remained until dark, resisting every effort of the enemy to dislodge them. After nightfall, it being clear that the capture of the rebel position was impossible, orders were given to withdraw; and in good order, slowly and silently, Colonel Mindil brought off the regiments under his command. No regiment could have behaved with more splendid valor than did the Thirty-third on this occasion. It was their stubborn attack, mainly, which compelled the detention of the enemy, who thus left open Snake Creek Gap, through which McPherson pushed without opposition, and Dalton, being flanked, was evacuated. The regiment lost in all two officers and four enlisted men killed, and two officers and twenty-three men wounded several of the wounded subsequently dying. Among the killed was Captain Bartlett, who fell at the head of his column, gallantly charging upon the foe. He was an experienced, veteran officer, and had established a high reputation for coolness and courage in the battles of the Peninsula and with the Thirty-third. Lieutenant Joseph L. Miller, who also fell, was new to the service, but with his heart in the cause, he promised to become an excellent soldier, as he was undoubtedly one of the bravest of the brave. The bodies of both these officers were buried by the foe the Masonic emblems on Captain Bartlett's person gaining for him a respectful burial. Colonel Mindil promoted the brave and dashing Cochrane, of Company K, to fill Captain Bartlett's place, but before the Governor's commission reached him, he too joined the host of martyrs, falling at Pine Knob a month afterwards. The heavy labors of Colonel Mindil in the charge, leading up the mountain on foot, caused an old wound to re-open, and against his wishes, he was ordered to hospital for treatment. For his part in the action, though overlooked at the time, he was afterwards honored with the brevet rank of Major- General.
The Thirty-third remained with the division encamped near the foot of the mountain until the morning of the 11th, when under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Fouratt, it moved to the left. The three following days were spent in marching, intrenching and picket-duty, when, early on the morning of the 15th, the battle of Resaca was commenced, the Thirty-third becoming actively engaged about ten o'clock, A. M., when it charged the enemy up a gentle slope, covered with thick pines, four or five feet high. Being, however, in the second line, the regiment was not able to fire, though exposed to the full force of the enemy's batteries. In this gallant charge, the Thirty-third planted its colors within ten paces of the enemy's fort, and effectually prevented his gunners using four pieces of artillery therein. But beyond this, the line could not advance without some de- struction. A small ravine separated the Second Brigade, of Geary's Division, from Wood's Brigade, of Butterfield's, and this ravine was unoccupied, but was thoroughly commanded by the rifles of the left wing of the Thirty-third. About dusk the enemy assaulted Butterfield in force, and the regiment performed excellent service in pouring a destructive flank fire into the right of the enemy's crowded columns. As soon as it was dusk, it was determined to secure the guns which had been silenced, and accordingly the Thirty-third, with other regiments of the division, dug away the earth in front of the fort, and quietly fastening ropes to the coveted pieces dragged them into our lines-one being carried away by the Jerseymen who had shared the glory and danger of the charge. The loss of the regiment in this engagement was three men killed, one officer, Captain Bray, and twenty-four enlisted men wounded. Lieutenant- Colonel Fouratt fought the regiment with signal ability, and on this, his first field of battle with the Thirty-third, gained that reputation for coolness and
On the 16th the march was resumed, the Thirty-third crossing the Ostanaula and Connasauga Rivers, and thence moving through Cassville, across the Etowah River towards Burnt Hickory. On the 25th, after intrepidity which he ever afterwards enjoyed. 1 crossing Pumpkin Vine Creek, the enemy was discovered in force near Dallas, or New Hope Church, and about five o'clock, P. M., with the rest of Hooker's Corps, the Thirty-third became engaged, driving in the enemy's skirmishers and advancing until dark, when they reached a strong position of the rebels, defended by artillery. Here, for half an hour, the enemy's fire was very hot, and in this position the Thirty-third remained during the night, exposed to a drenching rain. On the morning of the 26th, finding further progress impossible, the regiment constructed for itself without much opposition from the enemy, a small line of logs and earth, behind which to rest with security. During the night, these intrenchments were enlarged and strengthened; and Hooker's Corps for seven days was compelled to remain in this position, during the hottest of weather, whilst Sherman was operating elsewhere. The only duty was that of picket, and this was unusually dangerous and arduous, every night producing a list of killed and wounded as the videttes were relieved. The two lines were here so close that no one upon either side dared to show his head above the breastworks. All change of pickets and guards took place after dark. Here the brave and talented Captain Field received the mortal wound from which he died ten days afterwards at Chattanooga. Probably the most wretched week of the "one hundred days' campaign" was that spent here; the opposing lines being within one hundred and fifty yards of each other, the firing was incessant; the stench from the dead bodies which could not be removed, was sickening and their sight discouraging; maggots covered the ground in thousands, and each succeeding day only added to the strength of the enemy's works. Each night's rest was disturbed by the call to arms half a dozen times in as many hours, and the men were completely broken down with excitement and want of rest, when, at length, Logan's Corps, after repulsing the enemy at Dallas, arrived to relieve Hooker's troops from this uncomfortable position. During the first day's engagement, and the subsequent seven days from May 25 to 31, the Thirty-third lost one officer and five men killed and twenty-seven men wounded.
On June 1, the regiment was moved with the corps towards the left of the army, then to within three and a half miles of Acworth, where on the 6th of June a camp was established, and a week's rest afforded to the men. All this time the Confederates were slowly retreating, fighting every step of the way. On the 14th of June the march was resumed, and a position taken up near the Fourth Corps, fronting the rebel position on Pine-Knob. On the afternoon of the 15th of June, Hooker advanced against the enemy, the Thirty-third at first being in the second or supporting line. The enemy slowly and deliberately retreating towards his works, the first line charged forward under a heavy fire, when the second line, in which was the Thirty-third, was also ordered to pass to the front and engage the foe. Again, as on other fields, the Thirty-third advanced in splendid order, as if on parade, though under a murderous fire, and soon gained an advanced position within seventy- five yards of the enemy's breastworks. This position they held with tenacity, despite the enemy's attempt to dislodge them. Morning found them inadequately protected. The enemy was very strongly posted above our men, and well protected, and at once availed himself of our exposed position to slaughter our troops by a system of most accurate sharp-shooting. The losses were frightful. The enemy's line of battle overlapping ours, he gradually worked it around more and more, and commenced to enfilade the Union line. A company of the One Hundred and Thirty-fourth New York was now ordered forward to check this movement, but were driven back with heavy loss after a gallant effort. Another force met a similar fate, when at last Company I, of the Thirty-third, Lieutenant John C. Smith commanding, was ordered forward, driving off the enemy's advance and checking his progress. But the work of death did not cease. Many of the men were killed lying behind the works by rebel sharp-shooters, whom it was found impossible to dislodge. The brave and chivalrous Captain Cochrane, so distinguished in every fight, in attempting, with rifle in hand, to silence one of the more accurate of the rebel marksmen, was himself instantly killed. So passed the 16th of June, a day of anxiety and inaction, with its long list of killed and wounded. Throughout, the Thirty-third acted nobly, and was highly commended by Generals Hooker and Geary for its bravery. It lost in this battle of Pine Knob, June 15th and 16th, one officer and thirteen men killed, and one officer and forty-three men wounded, the total casualties of the regiment during the campaign thus far being eight officers and one hundred and thirty-nine enlisted men. The heavy loss in officers best shows how gallantly they behaved.
After this engagement, the Thirty-third participated in the skirmishes of Nances Creek and Muddy Creek, and the flank of the assaulting columns of the Fourth Corps at Kenesaw. Moving in pursuit of the enemy by way of Marietta, the 7th of July found the Thirty-third in camp in sight of the steeples of Atlanta. On the afternoon of the 17th of July, the brigade crossed the Chattahoochie, and on the 18th passed over Nances Creek, advancing through the woods in line of battle towards Atlanta. On the 19th, Peach Tree Creek was crossed and a small line of defensive works constructed for the night. On the next day, the memorable 20th of July, the Thirty-third was ordered to advance with the rest of the division, the enemy having fallen hack and offering no opposition. About two o'clock P. M., orders from General Geary directed Colonel Fouratt to occupy with the Thirty-third a knoll about five hundred yards in advance of a small temporary line of rifle-pits, which had been hastily thrown up by the First Brigade, and only long enough to cover a single battalion. The regiment at once marched over these works and formed line of battle in the road beyond, a line of skirmishers being deployed in front before the advance was made. Then came the command to " forward," and the movement began. Everything was still and ominous, so unusually so, indeed, that Colonel Fouratt, an old campaigner, expressed himself as sure of trouble ahead; and he was right. The knoll was reached, arms were stacked, the skirmishers told to advance a little further, and rails obtained to commence the construction of a little redoubt for the division artillery. Just then a tremendous volley saluted the skirmishers, passing over into the regiment, wounding Lieutenant Childs and others. For fifteen minutes the enemy continued to fire rapidly, but the Thirty-third replied as well, and held its position. That defence was of infinite value ; it gave our army in the rear time to prepare, and so prevented perhaps, great disaster. But now the enemy, discovering that but a single regiment replied to his fire, made a flank movement towards the regimental right, coming down a ravine, at the same time attacking the left with a rush and a yell. Column after column was closing in on the right and left and front of the Thirty-third, when, deeming further resistance useless, and fearing capture if too long delayed, Colonel Fouratt reluctantly issued the order for retreat. But the enemy had already occupied most of the ravine in the rear of the regiment, and every soldier was compelled to escape for himself, the rebels in overwhelming numbers rushing onward, destroying the color guard and capturing the State flag, the color-bearer being shot dead. But there was no disgrace in this repulse, for the same force which succeeded in driving the Thirty-third, soon drove the entire division, and almost annihilated the Twentieth Corps. In fact, Hood's whole army had attacked the Thirty-third, and it was the spirited resistance of that regiment which gave our army time to form and repel the savage and unexpected assault. The Thirty-third was soon rallied again, around its national flag, and once more did admirable service in repelling the last onset of the enemy.
The battle of Peach Tree Creek was in all respects a most desperate fight, and no regiment sustained a nobler part than the Thirty-third. Both Hooker and Geary again commended the bravery of the regiment. The loss of the regiment was over seventy in killed and wounded-Lieutenants Downes, Aspen and Warren being taken prisoners by the foe, Aspen being badly wounded. The 21st was occupied in burying the dead, and on the 22d the regiment moved to within half a mile of the enemy's works surrounding Atlanta. Here heavy works were constructed, and the regiment was under constant fire for over a month, performing the heavy duty of the trenches and the dangerous one of picket. On the 2d of September, the Thirty-third, with the rest of the brigade, under Colonel Mindil, was among the first troops to enter Atlanta.
The Thirty-third left Chattanooga with over five hundred muskets, and entered Atlanta with a few over one hundred. Three hundred out of the five hundred men were either killed or wounded. It is believed that no regiment of that army can show a similar record.
Upon entering the city of Atlanta, the Thirty-third was assigned a permanent camp to the right of the McDonough road, about a mile and a-half from the court house. In this camp it remained until Sherman had completed his preparations for the March to the Sea, in which it partook and entered Savannah December 21st.
The armies of Tennessee and Georgia, constituting the invading column of General Sherman, rested at Savannah for about one month, when the grand march through the Carolinas was commenced. The Thirty- third Regiment, commanded by Colonel Fouratt, was in the Second Brigade, Second Division, Twentieth Corps, commanded by General Mindil. After a compaign of six weeks Goldsborough was reached. The marching averaged fifteen miles per day, the troops subsisting entirely upon the country, and being mostly employed in the destruction of bridges and railroads, manufactories, rebel storehouses, and cotton. The Army of Georgia, commanded by General Slocum, with which the Thirty-third was identified, was assigned the left flank of the column, being that in the direction of the enemy. The Thirty-third marched North from Savannah about forty miles, and then crossed over into South Carolina, at Sister's Ferry, moving via Robertville and Lowtonville (which the troops completely destroyed), to the Salkahatchie Swamp, and thence towards Blockville, a small village and station on the Augusta and Charleston Railroad. Here, while Kilpatrick was fighting at Aiken on the left, and Howard at the crossing of the Edisto on the right, Mindil's Brigade was employed in the destruction of about half a mile of railroad track. Similar work engaged the force elsewhere for a number of weeks both in North and South Carolina.
Goldsborough was the objective both of Sherman and Schofield, and after the former left Fayetteville to resume his march, Johnson rapidly massed his troops at Averysboro and Bentonville, determined to make a last effort for the defence of the tottering Confederacy. At Averysboro a few divisions of the rebel army engaged the First and Third Divisions of our Twentieth Corps, but after a brilliant fight were compelled to retire, when the army was advanced cautiously, on near and parallel roads, and the trains heavily guarded. The weather was wet and stormy, and the marches through the swamps and bogs most exhausting. Mindil frequently marched his troops both night and day in constant rain, felling and splitting timber most of the time, so as to build roads upon which the trains might pass in safety. At times, leaving camp at four o'clock in the morning, working and toiling all day, midnight found the regiment but six miles in advance. But the troops maintained cheerful spirits, determined to overcome all obstacles. During the engagement at Bentonville, the Second Brigade was assigned to the. hazardous duty of convoying to a place of safety the immense trains of the army; a service which was highly appreciated by the superior officers. The army reached Goldsborough in safety, having traversed the entire length of the State of South Carolina, destroying all the principal railroads connecting Lee's army with its base, and consuming the greater part of the provisions, means of subsistence and forage in that hitherto inaccessible region of the South. Besides this, Sherman was within easy marches of Grant, and the theatre of war became narrowed to a district but a few hundred miles in extent. The campaign of Georgia and the Carolinas virtually decided the fate of the Confederacy.
At length, Grant being ready for his final move, the capaign of Raleigh, the last of the war, was opened. Moving in rapid pursuit of Johnston, Sherman's veterans, at Smithfield, North Carolina, received the gratifying intelligence of Lee's surrender, hailing it with jubilant demonstrations. Near Smithfield, and for an entire afternoon, the Thirty-third regiment successfully fought the retreating rebel cavalry, and there fired the last shots of the war. Johnston's surrender soon followed, and about a week after the homeward march was resumed, by way of Weldon, Five Forks, Richmond, and Fredericksburg, the Thirty-third reaching Washington in time to participate in the grand review of the Armies of the Re- public. The Thirty-third was retained in service until August 2d, lying near Alexandria, when it was ordered to be mustered out, and proceeded to Newark.
This regiment, in a little less than two years, tra- versed a distance of two thousand five hundred miles, over one thousand seven hundred of which were accomplished by marching. It fought in fourteen battles, and engaged in over a dozen skirmishes. Although but two years in service, the losses of battle and campaign were such that the regiment was twice filled. That the Government highly appreciated the services of the regiment, the number of brevets conferred upon its officers clearly shows.
This Regiment was first attached to the First Brigade, Second Division, Eleventh Army Corps ; then to the Second Brigade, Second Division, Twentieth Army Corps, and at the close of the war was attached to what was known as the Provisional Corps, Army of the Potomac.
Battles of the Regiment.-The Regiment took part in the following engagements : Chattanooga, Tenn., November 23, 1863; Mission Ridge, Tenn., November 24-25, 1863; Mill Creek Gap, near Dalton, Ga., May 8, 1864; Resaca, Ga., May 15-16, 1864; New Hope Church, near Dallas, Ga., May 25, to June 1, 1864; Pine Knob, Ga., June 15-16, 1864; Muddy Creek, Ga., June 17-18,1864; Culp's Farm, Ga., June 22, 1864; Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864; Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864; Siege of Atlanta, Ga., July 22, to September 2, 1864; Siege of Savannah, Ga., December 11, to 21, 1864; Averysboro, N. C., March 16,1865; Bentonville, N. C., March 18-20, 1864.
FIELD AND STAFF.
Lieutenant Colonel-Enos Fouratt, mustered in September 4, 1863; mustered out July 17, 1865 ; Brevet Colonel March 13, 1865 ; promoted Colonel Tenth Regiment March 31, 1865 ; not mustered.
Majors -David A. Peloubet, mustered in September 4, 1863; resigned
August 8, 1864.
Adjutants-William H. Lambert, mustered in July 25, 1863; promoted Captain
Company A, December 20, 1863; Brevet Major March 13, 1865.
Quartermasters-James B. Titman, mustered in August 1, 1863 ;
resigned January 26, 1864.
Surgeon-James Reiley, mustered in July 13, 1863; mustered out July 17, 1865.
Assistant Surgeons-S. Henry Stiger, mustered in July 20, 1863;
mustered out July 17,1865; Commissioned Surgeon, April 1, 1865; not mustered.
Chaplain-John Faull, mustered in September 5, 1863.
Quartermaster Sergeants-Orlando K. Guerin, mustered in August
29, 1863 ; Private, Company E ; Quartermaster Sergeant September 5, 1863
; promoted Second Lieutenant Company 1, November 1, 1864.
Commissary Sergeants-James Allen, mustered in August 29, 1863;
Private Company I ; Commissary Sergeant September 5, 1863; Private Company
G, November 14, 1863.
Hospital Steward -James Van Blarcom, mustered in September 4, 1865 ; mustered out July 17, 1865 ; Private Company D ; Hospital Steward September 6, 1863.
Drum Major-Nathaniel P. Morris, mustered in August 29, 1863; mustered out July 17, 1865 ; Private Company C ; Drum Major March 1, 1864.
Principal Musician-William E. Preston, mustered in September 4,1863 ; mustered out July 17, 1865; Musician Company D ; Principal Musician May 18, 1864.
First Lieutenants-George M. Harris, mustered in August 14,1863;
promoted Captain Company E, June 6, 1864.